Chats

The term chat is extremely overloaded, so it’s no surprise many are confused by what it means. This section should hopefully clear that up.

Telethon Chat

The word chat in Telethon is used to refer a place where messages are sent to. Therefore, a Telethon chat can be another user, a bot, a group, or a broadcast channel. All of those are places where messages can be sent.

Of course, chats do more things than contain messages. They often have a name, username, photo, description, and other information.

When a chat appears in a parameter or as a property, it means that it will be either a User, Group or Channel.

When a parameter must be “chat-like”, it means Telethon will accept anything that can be “converted” to a chat. The following types are chat-like:

  • The 'me' literal string. This represents the account that is logged in (“yourself”).

  • An '@username'. The at-sign @ is optional. Note that links are not supported.

  • An '+1 23' phone number string. It must be an str and start with the plus-sign + character.

  • An 123 integer identifier. It must be an int and cannot be negative.

  • An existing User, Group or Channel.

  • A PackedChat.

Previous versions of Telethon referred to this term as “entity” or “entities” instead.

Telegram Chat

The Telegram API is very confusing when it comes to the word “chat”. You only need to know about this if you plan to use the Raw API.

In the TL schema definitions, there are two boxed types, User and Chat. A boxed User can only be the bare user, but the boxed Chat can be either a bare chat or a bare channel.

A bare chat always refers to small groups. A bare channel can have either the broadcast or the megagroup flag set to True.

A bare channel with the broadcast flag set to True is known as a broadcast channel. A bare channel with the megagroup flag set to True is known as a supergroup.

A bare chat has less features available than a bare channel megagroup. Official clients are very good at hiding this difference. They will implicitly convert bare chat to bare channel megagroup when doing certain operations. Doing things like setting a username is actually a two-step process (migration followed by updating the username). Official clients transparently merge the history of migrated channel with their old chat.

In Telethon:

Telethon classes aim to map to similar concepts in official applications.

Bot API chat

The Bot API follows a certain convention when it comes to identifiers:

  • User IDs are positive.

  • Chat IDs are negative.

  • Channel IDs are also negative, but are prefixed by -100.

Telethon encourages the use of PackedChat instead of naked identifiers. As a reminder, negative identifiers are not supported in Telethon’s chat-like parameters.

If you got an Bot API-style ID from somewhere else, you will need to explicitly say what type it is:

# If -1001234 is your ID...
from telethon.types import PackedChat, PackedType
chat = PackedChat(PackedType.BROADCAST, 1234, None)
# ...you need to explicitly create a PackedChat with id=1234 and set the corresponding type (a channel).
# The access hash (see below) will be ``None``, which may or may not work.

Encountering chats

The way you encounter chats in Telethon is no different from official clients. If you:

  • …have joined a group or channel, or have sent private messages to some user, you can get_dialogs().

  • …know the user is in your contact list, you can get_contacts().

  • …know the user has a common chat with you, you can get_participants() of the chat in common.

  • …know the username of the user, group, or channel, you can resolve_username().

  • …are a bot responding to users, you will be able to access the types.Message.sender.

Chats access hash

Users, supergroups and channels all need an access hash.

In Telethon, the PackedChat is the recommended way to deal with the identifier-hash pairs. This compact type can be used anywhere a chat is expected. It’s designed to be easy to store and cache in any way your application chooses.

Bot accounts can get away with an invalid access hash for certain operations under certain conditions. The same is true for user accounts, although to a lesser extent.

When using just the identifier to refer to a chat, Telethon will attempt to retrieve its hash from its in-memory cache. If this fails, an invalid hash will be used. This may or may not make the API call succeed. For this reason, it is recommended that you always use PackedChat instead.

Remember that an access hash is account-bound. You cannot obtain an access hash in Account-A and use it in Account-B.